Holy Cows. The Miraculous Animals of the Irish Saints: Part Four St Ita and her donkey

Continuing on with my series of posts on The Miraculous Animals of the Irish Saints ( St Ciaran and his cow, St Manchan and his cow and St Patrick and his cow) I thought it was about time to write a post about a female saint.

St Ita of Kileedy is on of my favourite Irish saints.  St Ita ( Íte/Íde ) was  born in Co Waterford in the sixth century she was also the founder of the a great church and school at Killeedy in West Limerick.

034

Statue of St Ita at Kileedy

The place-name Killeedy or Cell Íde in Irish, translates as the church of Ita (www.logainm.ie/en/1564?s=Killeedy).

192

The site of St Ita’s monastery at Kileedy

Like her male counterparts the saint is associated with an extraordinary animal. Ita was the proud owner of  a very special donkey.

DSCF9547

Donkeys at Clare Island Co Mayo

In folk tradition Ita’s church was associated with a ringfort located four miles south-west of Kileedy, on the northern slope of a hill called Seeconglass near Mount Collins. The ringfort was referred to as Boolaveeda or ‘Ita’s dairy; (Killanin & Duignan 1967, 389).  It was said that all the milk that was used in the convent was brought everyday from the dairy to the nuns at Kileedy by the little donkey.

One day, as the poor beast was passing through the town of Tournafulla with his accustomed burden, a cruel hearted native attacked him with dogs. The donkey, flying from his pursuers, jumped across the river that flows by the townland, leaving the impress of his hoofs on a ledge of rock which is still pointed out. When St. Ita saw the donkey on his arrival, all torn and bleeding, in her anger she cursed the place where the outrage was committed (Begley 1906, 55).

There are a number of variations on this tale, in one account the saint was visiting Tournafulla and left her donkey unattended when some local boys frightened  the donkey causing it to run away.  Ita became very angry and when she retrieved her donkey she cursed the boys and their locality.  Tournafulla/Toornafulla   or Tuar na Fola in Irish  , tuar  means paddock, (cultivated) field, pasture Fola means blood (http://www.logainm.ie/en/1414152?s=Toornafulla)

According to Begley this tale may have very old origins as the taxation rolls of 1306, record the presence of  a chapel called De Monte Maledictionis, or the ” Chapel of the Mountain of the Curse,” mentioned as belonging to the church of Killeedy.  Begley recalled that in the townland of Tournafulla, the site of an old church was still pointed out in 1905, evidently the place where the above chapel was built, as there is no other locality in that part of the country having such a tradition (Begley 1906, 55).

In another story the donkey’s  caused a miraculous alteration to a plant. In the story Ita was out riding her donkey when it’s leg became lame. The saint then removed a thorn from the donkey’s hoof. The thorn grew into a tree whose thorns turned downwards and were therefore innocuous (Ó hÓgáin 1991, 259).

One day she was riding  on her donkey and he  was lame. When she looked at his  she found a thorn. She pulled it out and stuck it in the ground, and a bush grew up and all its thorns grew down (NFCS Dromcollagher, 497:051).

 

References

Begley, The Diocese of Limerick, Ancient and Mediaeval, 55.

Killanin ,L. & Duignan, M. 1967. The Shell Guide to Ireland.  London: Ebury Press.

Ni Riain, I. 1982. Saint Ita of Killeedy. Dublin: Irish Messenger Publications.

NFCS Dromcollagher, 497:051. online at :http://www.duchas.ie/en/cbes/4921994/4916337/4947288

Ó hÓgáin, D. 1991. Myth, legend & romance an encyclopaedia of the Irish folk tradition

New York: Prentice Hall Press.

Ó hÓgáin, D. 2006. The lore of Ireland :an encyclopaedia of myth, legend and romance /

Doughcloyne, Cork : Collins Press.

http://www.limerickdioceseheritage.org/Tournafulla/pplTournafulla.htm

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

A Smiling Face at Kilmacduagh Co Galway

I recently was reminded about a really interesting carving I noticed on my last visit to Kilmacduagh, Co Galway.

Burren 207

View of the monastic ruins of Kilmacduagh

Kilmacduagh is an early medieval monastic site founded by St Colman son of Duagh in the seventh century. The site is located a short distance from the town of Gort Co Galway. Today the surviving ruins of the monastic settlement consist of a round tower, a cathedral, two smaller churches and a small Augustinian abbey. I am planning to do a much more detailed post on the site in the coming months.

The cathedral is the largest of the  surviving buildings and also possibly the oldest structure at the site.  It was probably  originally built in the tenth or eleventh century it was extended in the twelfth century and remodelled  again in the fifteenth century.

Burren 224

The church has many interesting features that are worth discussing in more detail  but for the purpose of this post I will  only highlight a very unusual carving.

The carving can be seen just inside the doorway of  the north transept, on the  right-hand side as you walk into the transept from the nave.

IMG_6179

View of the doorway of the north transept

The carving consists of  a large  face cut into a sandstone block of stone. It is an  oval shaped face, of a bald male, with two large ears, almond shaped eyes and a broad smiling mouth. All of his features combine to  giving the figure a rather happy expression and when  I first noticed the face I could not help but smile back.

IMG_6177

Smiling face carved into the entrance of the north transept at Kilmacduagh

The carving is  most unusual and I have not seen anything comparable in all my travels.  Are any of you aware of similar type carvings at other church sites in Ireland or Britain?  If I find out anything else about the happy face I will let you all know.

 

Save

Save

Save

Save

Votes Needed. Made the shortlist for Littlewoods Ireland Blog Awards 2016

I am very excited to announce that Pilgrimage in Medieval Ireland has been short listed  for the Littlewoods Ireland Blog Awards 2016. My blog is nominate in two categories Education & Science and Arts & Culture

There is some great blogs in both categories . Id be delighted if you can vote for my blog by clicking on the image   below

 

Littlewoods-Blog-Awards-2016-Website-MPU_Vote-For-Us

Votes needed for Pilgrimage in Medieval Ireland

or this link how to vote  for Pilgrimage in Medieval  Ireland.

 

Save

Photo Essay of Pilgrimage to Caher Island Co Mayo

Today is the 15th of August, the Feast of the Assumption. It is one of the busiest days in the Irish pilgrim calendar. One of the most spectacular pilgrimages to take place on this day occurs on Caher Island/Oileán na Cathrach off the coast of Mayo.

In 2014 I joined  with pilgrims in the annual pilgrimage to the island. This pilgrimage is a bit of a  journey if you don’t live in Mayo but worth any effort. Access to the island is also very much dependant on weather conditions so there is a risk of arriving and finding the boats are not going. I travelled from Cork to the town of  Louisburg in Co Mayo before continuing onto Ronnagh Pier. I then got on a boat organised by O’Malley Ferries  and  with other pilgrims sailed out to Caher Island. Boats also go from Inishturk island.

20140815_095442

Ronnagh Pier Co Mayo

Caher Island a small uninhabited Island around 128 acres in size. It lies halfway between Inishturk Island and Ronnagh Pier off the coast of Mayo. The island contains the ruins of a small early monastic site and has a very fine collected of early medieval cross slabs. I plan to write a more detailed post about the archaeology and history of pilgrimage on the island in the coming months.

IMG_3328

Heading for Caher Island

The waters around the island are treacherous so only an experienced boatmen familiar with the area can land safely.  The island has no pier so you have to climb up the rocks along the shore to get  to land.

DSCF2645

Pilgrims at Caher Island

The island was also known as Oileáin na Cathrach, Cathair na Naomh and Cathair Pádraig.  St Patrick is said to have spent time here following his 40 day and nights on Croagh Patrick.  Folklore also  says the island is the  end of a mythical road called the  Bóthair na Naomh/Saint’s Road, that ran across the sea  up to the summit of Croagh Patrick.

Kilmyshall (1 of 124)-3

Arriving by boat at Caher Island

Today devotions on the island are focused around the small rectangular stone church.

Kilmyshall (1 of 124)

Church at Caher Island

Within the church is a small altar with  a cursing stone known as the Leac na Naomh. The stone is a large conglomerate stone.  In times past people would swear on the stone to prove they had told the truth or in more sinister cases to make curses or cause storms.

 

In times past a complex series of pilgrim stations existed on the island . The pilgrim landscape  incorporated the church a large number   leactha  in the surrounding  landscape and a holy well on the north side of the island. Leachta  the plural for leacht  is a type of dry-stone altar that predominantly dates to the early medieval period.  The majority of the leachta at Caher Island are surmounted by decorated early medieval cross slabs.

Today pilgrimage rituals are focused around a mass held outside the church. A large leacht in front of the east gable is used as an altar.

IMG_3220

Priest saying mass at Caher Island

Some pilgrims will also include a visit to Tobar Mhuire/ Mary’s well, a holy well  located on the north side of the island. They will normally visit the well before the mass takes place.

IMG_3139

Tobar Mhuire Caher Island

For many people  this pattern day or pilgrimage is an integral part of the annual pilgrimage to climb Croagh Patrick on the last Sunday in July with some feeling their pilgrimage is only complete once they have climbed the mountain and visited  Caher Island some weeks later.

DSCF2635

Pilgrims on Caher Island 2014

Following devotion pilgrims leave the island and travelled by boat to the nearby island of Inishturk for food and refreshments  at the community centre before heading back to the mainland. There is a great atmosphere on Inishturk with plenty of good food  and music and a visit here was a fantastic way to end such a great day.

Pilgrimage to Caher Island is one of the best pilgrimage experiences  I have had. The island is a fascinating place and I cant wait to get back there again  for a visit and to write more about the islands rich pilgrimage history.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Useful Links

http://www.inishturkisland.com/?pagid=caher-island

http://www.irishtimes.com/news/environment/archaeological-find-shines-light-on-ancient-religious-rituals-1.1636852

Save

Save

Save

Save

Templecronan and the Relics of St Cronan Co Clare

Templecronan  is one of my favourite pilgrim sites.  The site is an early medieval monastic settlement dedicated to St Cronan.  It is located on farmland in Co Clare near the village of Carran. To get to the ruins you need to cross through some fields but a number of signposts guide the way.

IMG_4470

View of Temple Cronan Co Clare

Very little is known about the history of Templecronan or  the people who lived here and most of what we know about the site  is gleamed from the archaeological record.  The  site  is located  in a townland  called Termon/ An Tearmann  which means church or glebe lands.

Today the most prominent feature at the site is a small rectangular shaped multi-period church. The fabric of the walls  contain traces of cyclopean masonry, a common masonry style for churches in early medieval Ireland  and  a  blocked up linteled west doorway with inclined jambs. These features, suggest an early stone church was  at the site  and was remodelled in during the  Romanesque period (1020-1170 A.D).

IMG_4475

View of the  west gable of Templecronan church

Romanesque features within the church include a round-headed  window in the east gable and corbels decorated with Hiberno-Romanesque animal heads in the west gable. There are also a number of Romanesque heads incorporated into the fabric of the walls.

Further remodelling was carried out in the fifteenth century with the addition of a pointed  finely carved doorway in the north wall.

 

IMG_4477

Fifteenth century doorway in the north wall of Templecronan

Traces on an ecclesiastical enclosure can still be found in the surrounding landscape.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Archaeological evidence for pilgrimage at Templecronan is represented by two outdoor reliquaries located  close to the church.  Outdoor reliquaries were  built to house the relics of a saint or holy person who was normally the founder saint. Some may have been built over the original grave of the saint.  At Templecronan the reliquaries/shrines are a type known as  gable shrine. They are triangular-shaped structure made up of two long flat flag stones and two smaller triangular-shaped stones arranged like a tent and orientated east-west. The short length of the shrines suggests they were used to house disarticulated skeletons/corporeal remain (Edwards 2002, 240).

Most  scholars agree that the gable shrines are among of the earliest types of outdoor reliquary and suggest a date of seventh or eighth century.  However  Carlton Jones (2006, 138-139) suggest that both the shrines at Templecronan  were  contemporary with Romanesque carving at oratory. Only targeted excavation would answer this question definitively although excavation of a gable shrine at Illaunloughlan Island, Co. Clare  dated the shrine to  second half of the eighth century .

IMG_4499

View of  gable shrine known as St Cronan’s Bed at Templecronan.

The shrine located southeast of the church is known as St Cronan’s Bed and local tradition holds this was  the burial -place of St Cronan.  The second shrine is found  northeast of the church in the adjacent field defined by modern field boundaries.

IMG_4516

Gable shrine to the northeast of the Templecronan church

The presence of the gable shrines strongly suggests that pilgrimage was taking place here as early as the eight century  and the construction of the shrines represents a period of great devotion to the saints associated with the site. The site appears to have fallen out of use in the late medieval period and devotion the the shrines gradually ceased.

Further evidence of pilgrimage is found at a holy well located a short distance from the church. The well is  also dedicated to St Cronan and known as  St Cronan’s holy well/Tobar Chronain.

IMG_4522

Pathway leading to St Cronan’s holy well

The holy well is  located at the base of a rock outcrop and defined by a dry-stone circular wall.

IMG_4525

Stone wall surrounding St Cronan’s holy well

The  holy well  is a simple spring. A large  penitential cairn of unknown date  is found beside the well within the enclosure. It is not possible to know if the well was part of early medieval pilgrimage at Templecronan but it was a place of pilgrimage in the nineteenth century.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

The Ordnance Survey Letters for Clare 1839 state that ‘stations are performed but no distinct patron day is remembered‘. A quick search of nineteenth century sources has failed to turn up any further information about the well.  Today the well and its surrounding are well cared and I noticed some coins left beside a small modern religious statue which suggests it may be still visited.

Templecronan is one of many wonderful site in Co Clare and is certainly worth spending some time exploring.

References

Edwards, N. 1999. The Archaeology of Early Medieval Ireland. London: Routledge.

Jones, C. 2004. The Burren and The Aran Islands. Exploring The Archaeology. Cork: The Collins Press.

Marshall, J. & Walsh, C. 2005. Illaunloughan Island: An Early Medieval Monastery

  in County Kerry. Bray: Wordwell.

http://www.clarelibrary.ie/eolas/coclare/folklore/folklore_survey/chapter14.htm

 

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

The Hidden Treasures of Co Offaly. St Manchan’s Church at Boher, Ballycumber

St Manchan’s Church

In my travels around Ireland I have found you can often find the most incredible places, relics, statues etc  in the most unlikely of settings.  St Manchan’s church at Boher, Ballycumber, Co Offaly is a great example. From the outside the church looks like any other nineteenth century  parish church found around  Ireland. There isn’t anything very out of the ordinary about the building which was constructed around  1860’s.  It has a cruciform plan and  is a functioning parish church, used every day by the local community.

13708308_10153832852807897_2267567472074064004_o

St Manchan’s church Boher Co Offaly (Thanks to Abarta Heritage for the photo http://www.abartaheritage.ie)

If you take the time to go inside the church you will find  a collection of magnificent stained glass windows by the internationally renowned  stain glass artist Harry Clarke (1889-1931), as well as  St Manchan’s shrine one of the finest surviving  examples of medieval Irish reliquaries.

St Manchan’s Shrine

It is though St Manchan’s shrine was originally constructed to house the bones of St Manchan the founder of the nearby  monastery of Lemanaghan. I have previously written about the history of the monastic site of  Lemanaghan.

St Manchan’s shrine is a twelfth-century reliquary. It is an outstanding example of early Irish decorative metal work and the work of a true master craftsman. It was commissioned by High King of Ireland, Turlough O’ Connor and likely manufactured at Clonmacnoise. The annals for 1166 state

The shrine of Manchan, of Maethail (Mohill), was covered by Ruaidhri Ua Conchobhair , and an embroidering of gold was carried over it by him, in as good a style as a relic was ever covered.

This reference likely refers to the Lemanaghan shrine  although it is possible it may refer to second shrine now lost, that existed at Mohill.  Fragments of bone possibly from the saint are still found within the shrine. From the sparse references that exist the shrine appears to have  been  housed near the high altar of St Manchan’s church at Lemanaghan  where it remained  until  the seventeenth century. It was later moved to a chapel in Boher and following the building of the parish church the shrine was moved to its current location where it remains, absent  only for a brief period following a theft in 2012.

St Manchan’s shrine is what is known as a house- shaped shrine and resembles the pitched roof of  church or oratory and it is decorated with intricate bronze work, gilt and enamel. The shrine is made of yew wood  (48cm tall by 40 cm wide by 61cm long) and is covered with highly decorated bronze figures and bosses sitting on four feet.  The bosses and decorated panels are arranged in a cruciform design on the front and back of the  shrine.

The sides or gables of the shrine are covered in elaborate filigree  and enamel work.

20160726_142413

Gable of St Manchan’s shrine

There were originally 52 figures bronze figures attached to the shrine by small bronze nails. If you look carefully you can still see the holes. The figures filled the spaces created by the cross motif on the front and back of the shrine. Only eleven figures are still attached and it has been suggested the figures may represent monks or abbots of the monastery.

20160726_140745

Bronze figures attached to St Manchan’s shrine.

The shrine was  designed to be portable  and  could be carried in processions. Four metal loops are found at each corner which allowed wooden poles to be treaded through.  A reliquary procession may have formed part for the pilgrim rituals at Lemanaghan on  the more important days in the pilgrim calendar such as the saints feast day. It is likely that the date of the translation of the saint’s relics  would also have been a special day in the pilgrim calendar.

For a detailed discussion of the shrine I recommend checking out the book Sacral Geographies  by Karen Overbey.

Harry Clarke Windows

If you follow my facebook page Pilgrimage in Medieval Ireland you will know I am a big fan of Harry Clarke’s work. Boher church  has five wonderful Harry Clarke windows.  The windows were commissioned from the Harry Clarke studio, in 1930 at a cost of £330. My favourite window depicts St Manchan the patron saint of the parish. It is clear that Clarke took inspiration from local folklore relating to the saint and from St Manchan’s shrine.

081

Harry Clarke window depicting St Manchan in the south transept.

The window depicts Manchan holding a green book above the saints head  is an image of the saint with his cow. I have written  previously about St Manchan and his cow  who was famed for her ability to produce an endless supply of milk. The cow features strongly in local folklore.

052

Harry Clarke window depicting St Manchan

Below the saint’s feet is a life-size image of St Manchan’s shrine. The window is in the south transept of the church directly behind the display location of the twelfth century St Manchan’s shrine.  Rosita Boland  sums up the visual impact of the window in article Colourful legacy of a stain glass artist

It also includes a life-sized image of the shrine, aglow with gold and bronze. When you view the actual object first and then its likeness in jewelled stained glass behind, the genius of Clarke’s commissioned work is profoundly evident. It was made for this place, to complement the shrine, and its south-facing aspect means both the window and the gilt-bronze shrine glow a luminous amber for hours.

St Manchans Shrine 13

Detailed image of St Manchan’s shrine (Thanks Abarta Heritage for the photo http://www.abartaheritage.ie for use of their image)

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Behind the altar are three  stunning windows of the Blessed Virgin, Christ and St Joseph all depicted in rich vibrant of colours.

061

Harry Clarke windows behind the altar at Boher Church

All  the figures have angels over head.  St Joseph who was a carpenter  is depicted holding a set square in his hand while the Christ figure has the holes in his feet and hand from his crucifixion. The details of the images such as the use of colour, the fine details of the folds in robes, patterns on fabric are amazing.

Save

Save

Save

 

The fifth Harry Clarke window is located in the north transept and depicts  St Anne with the Blessed Virgin as a child.

 

079

St Anne and the Blessed Virgin as a child

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

It’s amazing to think this little church in rural Ireland  houses such treasures.  If you are visiting  Offaly I highly  recommend a visit to Boher church. It is the most inspiring  and  most wonderful place to spend time.

References  & Useful Links

Boland, R. 2011. ‘Colourful legacy of stained-glass master’. Friday 26th August The Irish Times http://www.irishtimes.com/culture/art-and-design/colourful-legacy-of-stained-glass-master-1.607027

Harbison, P. 1991. Pilgrimage in Ireland. The Monuments and the People. Syracruse University Press.

O’Brien C. 2006. Stories from a Sacred Landscape Croghan Hill to Clonmacnoise.  Mercier Press.

Overbey, K. Sacral Geographies. Saints, Shrines and Territories in Medieval Ireland. Brepols. (https://books.google.ie/books/about/Sacral_Geographies.html?id=vJeQPgAACAAJ&redir_esc=y)

http://timetravelireland.blogspot.ie/2016/02/st-manchans-shrine-boher-county-offaly.html

Holy Cows. The Miraculous Animals of the Irish Saints: Part Two St Manchan’s Cow

Medieval Pilgrimage at Lemanaghan, Co Offaly

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save