Holy Cows. The Miraculous Animals of the Irish Saints: Part 8, St Patrick and his Goat

I cant believe that I have reached number eight  in my series of blog posts on the Irish saints and their animals. St Patick has previously featured with his miraculous cow  and he makes an appearance again on account of his association with a magical goat.  I’m very grateful to Christy Cunnliff the Galway Archaeological  Field Officer for telling me about this story. Christy also writes the Galway Community Archaeology Blog.

homepic.jpg

Group of wild Irish Goats Image taken from http://www.oldirishgoatsociety.com/

As far as I know the story of St Patrick and his goat occurs in folklore in only two areas of Ireland,  Co Galway and Co Dublin. If anyone has come across this story or variation of it elsewhere in the country  Id be delighted to hear from you.

The story of St Patrick and His Goat from Co Galway

St Patrick and his goat appear in the folklore of east Co Galway in the parish of Abbert/Monivea. The saint is  associated with a small holy well-known as  Tobar Padraig (St Patrick’s holy well) located in Monivea parish graveyard.

Tobar Phadraig Monieva Co Galway

According to tradition  St Patrick rested at the well and baptised the local people, indeed a rock at the side of the well with a slight depression is  said to have been created by the saint when he knelt beside  the well (Cunniffe 2016, 3). The holy well was once a place of pilgrimage and a large pattern day took place on the feast of the saint.  The wall surrounding the well has a plaque dating to 1688 that depicts the saint standing on a serpent. Over time  devotions  waned but the well is still visited by a small number of people.

 

In another tale from the area when St Patrick arrived to the area he was accompanied by a goat. The Schools Collections recorded in the late 1930’s  mentions two versions of  this tales. In both tales milk is stolen from the goat and the saint places a curse on the area.

The Schools Collections for the parish of Crumlin  records that

Patrick’s Well is a mile east of this school. There is a graveyard there and a blessed/holy well in it. Next to the well there is a stone/flagstone which has old writing on it. The people believe that St Patrick spent the night there on his journey to Cill Benín. It is said that someone milked a goat that St Patrick had with him that night and he cursed the people of the area. People would travel there long ago on St Patrick’s Day. There would be fighting and the priest put an end to these travels/pilgrimage. This happened about 80 years ago ( Crumlin School,  The Schools’ Collection, Volume 0082, Page 186 translated from Irish by Paul Devane).

 

Tobar Phádraig

Crumlin School,  The Schools’ Collection, Volume 0082, Page 186

A second version of the tale was also recorded in the Schools Collection  at Kiltullagh

When St. Patrick was in Ireland long ago. One day he was travelling through Monivea and he had a Goat with him. He went into the church to pray, and whilst he was inside somebody in Monivea milked the Goat. St. Patrick was vexed, and when he was leaving Monivea he looked back and said that he hoped Monivea would be neither better or worse. So Monivea stands the very same way ever since and it is not better or worse (The Schools’ Collection, Volume 0034, Page 0475  Kiltullagh, Co. Galway).

St Patrick and His Goat in Co Dublin

A variant of the tale is found on the east coast of Ireland in North Co Dublin at Skerries.

According to legend St Patick spent time in Skerries Co Dublin, and his presence in the area is remembered by a hollow in rock on the seashore which is called St Patrick’s footprint.  According to local legend

When St. Patrick was expelled from Wicklow by the pagan natives he sailed northwards and landed on a small island off Skerries, which is now known as St. Patrick’s Island in his honour. When the saint arrived on this island he had with him a goat, which was his companion and source of milk.

From this island St. Patrick came to the mainland to convert the local people. While St. Patrick was ashore on one of these visits some people from Skerries went out to the island and stole his goat. They killed the goat, cooked it and feasted on it. When St. Patrick went to the island he found his goat missing.

This made him very angry and in two giant strides he reached the mainland. The first step took him to the back of Colt Island and the second to Red Island, where he confronted the people of Skerries.

When they tried to deny interfering with his goat they found they could only bleat. When they were prepared to tell the saint the truth their voices returned. Where St. Patrick stepped onto Red island his footprint is to be seen in the rock to this day. Since then the nickname Skerries Goats is given to the people of the town to remind them of this deed (http://www.skerriesparish.ie/history).

skerries

St. Patrick’s footprint can be seen on the rocks near the Springboards, the tidal bathing place on Red Island image taken (https://m0.herfamily.ie/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/13140617/print.org

The Schools  Collections for Holmpatrick notes

In Skerries there is a bathing place called the “Spring Board”
In one of the rocks there is a hole in the shape of a man’s foot-print .
The people of skerries say it is the foot-print of St, Patrick; that when he was on one of the Island he stepped over to the mainland , where the “Spring Board” are now
This story is told by all the inhabitants of Skerries.  (The Schools’ Collection, Volume 0784, Page 91 Holmpatrick (roll number 14180)

Bronze Plaque to St Patrick’s Goat at Skerries Church image taken http://irishheraldry.blogspot.ie/2015/05/heraldry-at-skerries-holmpatrick.html

 

Earlier Origins for the tale of St Patrick and his goat
Both of these tales  seem to have evolved from a much older story earlier.  In earlier versions of the  story, the goat is eaten after being stolen and its bleating alerts the saint that it is in the stomach of the thief.
 The Life of St Patrick by Jocelyn written in the twelfth century  (published in The Most Ancient Lives of Saint Patrick, edited by James O’Leary)  in a chapter entitled  Chapter CXLVIII: A Goat bleateth in the Stomach of a Thief)  recalls the theft and eating of the saints goat. Once Patrick recovered the goat he cursed the thief to be marked with beard of a goat.
The blessed Patrick has a goat, which carried water for his service; and to this the animal was taught, not any article but rather by a miracle. And a certain theif stole the goat, and eat, and swallowed it. And the author or instigator or the theft is  enquired: and one who by evident tokens had incurred suspicion, is accused; but not only denieth he the fact, but adding perjury unto theft, endeavoreth he to acquit himself by an oath. Wondrous was the event to be told, yet more wonderful to come to pass. The goat which was swallowed in the stomach of the thief bleated loudly forth, and proclaimed the merit of Saint Patrick. And to the increase of this miracle it happened, that at the command, nay rather at the sentence of the Saint, all the posterity of this man were marked with the beard of a goat (http://www.gutenberg.org/files/18482/18482-h/18482-h.htm#chap6148).
A more paired down version of the  story is found in the  text the Tripartite Life of Patrick (Three Middle-Irish Homilies on the Lives of Saints Patrick, Brigit and Columba).  This is the earliest example of a saint’s Life written in the Irish language. It was begun in the ninth century and modified in the twelfth century.
In this version of the tale we are told that members of the  Uí Meith Mendait Tire ( whose territory was near Tara) stole and ate St Patrick’s goat and following their denial of the act the goat bleated  from in their stomachs altering the saint to their treacherous deed.

And Patrick blessed the Assembly of Telltown, so that no one should ever be killed there at, and that only one should be killed at Rath Airthir, and he left his altar a Domnach Patraic. And Patrick went from thence into the territory of Ui Meith in Mendait Tire, and he tarried not in Armagh at that season, and he left holy elders of his people at Tech-talai. Then three of Ui Meith Mendait Tire stole (and ate) one of the two goats that used to carry water for Patrick, and came to swear a lie. It bleated from the bellies of the three. ‘My debroth’ said Patrick, ‘the goat himself hides not the stead wherein he is.’He afterwards went to the men of Bregia and mightily preached the word of God unto them, and baptized and blessed them.

It’s fascinating to see how the story of St Patrick and his goat has survived  and adapted through the centuries before becoming established in the folklore of East Galway and North Co Dublin.

As an aside while looking into the story I came across the Old Irish Goat Society

The main aim of the Society is to preserve and promote the Old Irish goat, the original and only landrace breed of goat in Ireland. The society was formed in October 2006, by a small group of enthusiasts who realized that the breed was rapidly heading towards extinction, but that its gene pool could be preserved if assertive action were taken.

6860e7ab-ff67-4142-b3d6-2e2fadb1c91b

To find out more about the old Irish Goat and conservation efforts check out the society website.

References

Cunniffe, C. 2016. Tobar Padraig Holy Well , A Significant Local Pilgrimage Site. Galway Community Archaeology Advisory Project   Heritage Week August Unpublished Report.

O’Leary, J. 1874. The Most Ancient Lives of Saint Patrick: including the Life by Jocelin, Hitherto Unpublished in America, and His Extant Writings. Illustrated with the Most Ancient Engravings of Our Great National Saint; With a Preface and Chronological Table. New York: P. J. Kenedy, No. 5 Barclay Street.

Schools’ Collection, Volume 0784, Page 91Holmpatrick, Co Dublin (https://www.duchas.ie)

Schools’ Collection, Volume 0034, Page 0475  Kiltullagh, Co. Galway(https://www.duchas.ie)

Schools’ Collection, Volume 0082, Page 86 Crumlin School, Co Galway(https://www.duchas.ie)

Stokes, W. (ed).  1877. Three Middle-Irish Homilies on the Lives of Saints Patrick, Brigit and Columba. Calcutta : [s.n.].http://celt.ucc.ie/published/T201009/index.html.

http://irishheraldry.blogspot.ie/2015/05/heraldry-at-skerries-holmpatrick.html

http://www.skerriesparish.ie/history.htm

http://oldskerries.ie/the-legend-of-st-patricks-footprint/

Save

Pet Cemetery at Kilkea Castle

Yesterday I paid a visited to the newly opened  Kilkea Castle Hotel and Golf Course , in the company of my good friend, archaeologist and historian, Dr Sharon Greene.  The castle and grounds are full of many interesting features  including  a late medieval church and graveyard and medieval carvings.  Sharon is an expert on the history and archaeology of south Co Kildare and she provided an excellent tour of the church and historic graveyard located behind the castle.

 

Kilkea Castle

Kilkea Castle ( pronouced Kilkay)  was the residence of the renowned antiquarian Lord Walter Fitzgerald.  Lord Walter was a very  active member of the Kildare Archaeological and Historical Society and was a prolific contributer to  the societies journals on archaeology, history and folklore  of the county. Such was his influence and achievements that  Walter is commemorated by the Lord Walter Fitzgerald prize which is awarded biannually by the Kildare Archaeological Society for an essay of original research on some aspect of the county’s history.

 

View of Kilkea Castle from old graveyard and church

A small pet cemetery located under a tree at the back of the castle close to the road leading to the golf club house shows us another side of Lord Walters personality. As well as being a keen archaeologist and historian Lord Walter was also a dog lover as is clearly evident from  his commissioning of stone memorials to mark the passing of his pet dogs.

Memorial stones for Lord Walter Fitzgerald’s pet dogs

The cemetery consists of two finely cut stones.   The one closest to the road is a rectangular limestone  slab which bear the inscription

 

JESSIE

1893

She was a Dandi Dinmont that for 12 years

was more faithful to him than her master’s shadow.

_____________________________________________

There are men both good and wise who hold that in a future stage

Dumb creatures we have cherished here below

Shall give us joyous greeting when we pass the Golden Gate.

Is it folly that I hope it may be so?

For never man had friend more enduring to the end.

Truer mate in every turn of time and tide,

Could I think we’d meet again it would lighten half the pain.

if the thought that my Pet had died.

                                          (Whyte Melville)

______________________________________

Kavanach Carlow

Judging from the sentiment of the memorial stone Jessie a Dandi Dinot ,  now a rare breed of terrier, was sorely missed by her master. I like to think she accompanied him on his archaeological explorations.

Lord Walter adapted  the last verse of the The poem the place where the old horse died by George Whyte Melville to express his loss for his little dog.

Another interesting feature of the stone is that it also records the details of the maker  who is named as  Kavanach of Carlow.  It would be interesting to find out more about this stone mason.

Memorial stone for Jessie the beloved Dandie Dinmont terrier of Lord Walter Fitzgerald.

 

The dogs who followed Jessie are recorded on a second stone which is partially covered in soil and pine needles. The  stone is  rectangular  in shape  and at the top a dog collar has been carved  in relief with the words

1891 SHAUN 1902

The lower part of the stone contains the following inscription

The Faithful companion of

his Master,

W. FITZ G

1902 MURTAGH 1913

1913 TEIGE   19

The date of death for Teige has been left blank which may suggest he outlived his master.

Memorial stone of Shaun, Murtach and Teige the beloved dogs of Lord Walter Fitzgerald

Lord Walter died in 1923 and was buried in the nearby family graveyard a short distance from his beloved dogs.

Fitzgerald family plot at Kilkea Castle graveyard located within the ruins of a later medieval church.

 

Image of Lord Walter Fitzgerald from the Kildare Archaeological and Historical Society

Save

Holy Cows. The Miraculous Animals of the Irish Saints: Part 6, The Magical Cows of Kilmalkedar

Last year I began a series of post on the saints and their animals. Continuing with this theme this post will look at the folklore and legends of cows associated with the great ecclesiastical complex of   Kilmalkedar /Cill Maoilchéadair in the Dingle Peninsula, Co Kerry.

Unicode

Kilmalkedar medieval church part of the the Kilmalkedar Ecclesiastical Complex

The site of Kilmalkedar  consists of  a large ecclesiastical complex with archaeological remains dating from the early medieval to late medieval period.  It is dedicated to a little known saint called  Maolcethair, whose death was recorded in the martyrology of Donegal (Cuppage 1986, 308). The site was also linked to St Brendan and was  part of the  pilgrim landscape of the Mount Brandon. Unlike the previous tales about the saints and their animals ( Ita and her donkey, Patrick and his cow, Ciaran and his cow, Manchan and his cow), St Maolcethair  is not directly associated with any animal  but ecclesiastical complex has two interesting folk tales that relate to miraculous events associated with cows. These stories are embedded in the physical landscape.

The Cow and Thief’s Stone

One of the stories concerns the theft of a cow, a familiar theme from  the earlier posts in this series. The story goes that a thief tried to steal a cow from the community at Kilmalkedar. The cow bellowed, which woke up one of the monks.  One of the monks

‘caused the thief to stick in the stone  which he was climbing and the hoof of the cow to get embedded in the stone on which she had alighted from the fence. The thief set up a howling form pain and fright and prayed humbly for mercy and forgiveness. The holy man released him and warned him to sin no more. The imprints of the thief’s knees are to be seen to the present day and the impress of the cow’s hoof is also discernible’ ( Dingle Survey Files  after mss of John Curran, unpublished  OPW file).

kilmalkedar

1st ed OS map of Kilmalkedar (1842) showing the site of the Cow stone and Theifs stone.

Until 1967 two stones  known as the cow  and thief stone were located on either side of the road close to the church and graveyard at Kilmalkedar,  they were set 150m south of the graveyard and some 350 yards northeast of (KE042-028). Both were recorded on the 1st edition OS map of 1842. Unfortunately the cow stone  has now disappeared, both stones  were set on either side of the roadway until at least 1967.  The  cow stone (KE042-02701) was located on the west side of the road and the thief stone (KE042-027) on the east. Killanin & Michael (1967, 96) described the two stones as standing stones and the Dingle Survey notes that the theif stone ‘stood 0.81m high at the base’ (Cuppage 1986, 323). However descriptions in the Dingle Survey Files suggest that the  cow stone was a flat stone.

Unicode

View of the road outside if Kilmalkedar Graveyard the Cow and Thiefs Stones were located 150m to the south.

A story recounted  by Mary Jane Leadbeater Fisher in her book Letters from the Kingdom of Kerry: In the year 1845 also records the tale but in her account the story is linked to another archaeological feature of the landscape, a large multi basin bullaun stone know as the Keelers or na Beirtí (Milk Coolers).

A cow is the subject of this legend—a cow of size and breed suited to provide milk for the giant race of those days. We saw the milk vessels, and if she filled them morning and evening, she was indeed a marvellous cow. In a huge flat rock were these milk pans; six large round holes, regular in their distances from each other, and nearly of equal size; they could each contain some gallons of liquid. This said cow gave sufficient milk for one whole parish; and was the property of a widow—her only wealth. Another parish and another clan desired to be possessed of this prize; so a marauder, endued with superior strength and courage, drove her off one moonlight night. The widow followed wailing, and he jeered her and cursed her as he proceeded. The cow suddenly stopped; in vain the thief strove to drive her on; she could neither go on, nor yet return; she stuck fast. At length, aroused by the widow’s cries, her neighbours arrived, and the delinquent endeavoured to escape. In vain—for he too stuck fast in the opposite rock; he was taken and killed. The cow then returned to her own home, and continued to contribute her share towards making the parish like Canaan, “a land flowing with milk and honey.” The prints of her hoofs, where the bees made their nests, are still to be seen in one rock ; and those of the marauder’s foot and hand in another, where he was held fast by a stronger bond than that of conscience (Leadbeater Fisher 1847, 48).

The ‘huge  flat rock’ she refers to seems to be  a large stone known as the Keelers or ‘Beirti’.  This is a large irregular, shaped bullaun stone (KE042-026007)  located 50-60m northwest of the Romanesque church at Kilmalkedar. The stone  has seven depressions of oval and circular shape with depths of 0.04-0.25 diameters 0.22-0.42m diameter. This stone is associated with a magical cow known who is known in folklore form other parts of the country.

Unicode

Unicode

The  legendary cow was the  Glas Ghoibhneach,  she was said to a have been a marvellous milker.  The Glas Ghoibhneach translates as ‘the grey of Goibhniu’. Goibhniu was a mythical smith who likely derived from a god of the same name. The legend of the cow  is  very old and widespread across Ireland. According to O’hOgain

legend told of her all over Ireland describes how she filled with milk every pail put under her by her unnamed owner. However, a jealous woman claimed that she had a vessel which the Glas could not fill, and accordingly she brought a sieve and began to milk the great cow. The Glas yielded a continuous stream of milk, enough to fill a lake, but it all ran through the sieve. Eventually, she became exhausted by the effort and died.

The tradition from Kilmalkedar tells that the glas was milked into the basins of the rock by the monk from the monastery (An Seabhac 1939, 117). Interestingly additional stones associated with the magical cow are found a few miles to the southwest, the stones are  a pair of standing stones known as ‘Geata an Glas Ghaibhleann’ or the gate of Glas Ghaibhleann.

I would like to thank the wonderful archaeologist Isabel Bennett  for all her help with  pointing out sources for these  stones

References

An Seabhac. 1939. Triocha-Chéad Chorca Dhuibhne. Cuid IV. Dublin: An Cumann

le Béaloideas Éireann, 117.

Cuppage, J. 1986. Archaeological Survey of the Dingel peninsula. A description of

  the field antiquities from the Mesolithic Period to the 17th century A.D. Oidhrecht

  Chorca Dhuibhne. Ballyferriter: Oidhreacht Chorca Dhuibhne, 308

Dingle Survey Files.

Ó hÓgáin, D. 1991. Myth, legend & romance an encyclopaedia of the Irish folk tradition

New York: Prentice Hall Press.

Killanin, M. & Duignan, M. 1967. The Shell guide to Ireland. London: Ebury Press.

Leadbeater Fisher, M. J in her book Letters from the Kingdom of Kerry: In the year 1845. pub 1847. Dublin: Webb and Chapman

http://www.voicesfromthedawn.com/gate-of-the-cow/

O’H

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Irish Halloween Traditions

Introduction to Halloween

The first day of winter is upon us, in ancient times this day was celebrated as the festival of Samhain  ( 1st  November). The eve of this day was also of great importance and was known as Oíche Shamhna ( night of Samhain)  or  Hallowe’en. The name Hallowe’en derives from the fact this is the evening before the Feast of All Saints (The Hallowed Ones).

Where I’m from everyone pronounces  the ‘a’  in Halloween. I asked my parents about this and they told me this was how they and my grandparents  had always pronounced the word. Ive been doing a lot of driving recently  and I  have noticed that everyone on the  radio pronounces the ‘a’ as a ‘o’ saying  Holloween. I wonder is this a new development?

Halloween Traditions

When I was a child Halloween was pretty low key in our house but great fun.  We  usually celebrated the event with our cousins who lived near by and we would play bobbing for apples, where a large basin of water was placed on the table and we each took turns fishing the apples out  of the basin. This was no easy feat as you had to  use your  our teeth,  keep your hands behind your back.  We would eat lots of sweets and tell ghost stories. I don’t remember dressing up in costume but we always had a plastic masks  that we bought at the pound shop or made from a cereal box. There was always barm brack a type of light fruit cake which I hated but would pretend to eat in the hope of getting the slice of cake with the coin inside. Traditionally, a ring  and a coin were baked into the cake. If you got the coin would be rich and if you got the ring you  would get married.

I visited the National Museum of County Life  at Turlough Park  Co Mayo this summer. The museum has a really interesting exhibition on the old  Halloween traditions celebrated in Ireland. The  wearing of masks is an old Halloween tradition in Ireland and the exhibition includes a number of  Irish traditional Halloween Masks called Fiddle Faces. There was a long standing tradition of gangs of masked boys going to each farm house in the district in order to receive food or money, doing mischief if they were not well received.

909

Halloween Masks called Fiddle Faces at the National Museum of Ireland

904

Halloween Masks called Fiddle Faces at the National Museum of Ireland

Children with Masks © RTÉ Stills Library 3013/099

Child wearing a Halloween mask from the RTE archives.http://www.rte.ie/archives/exhibitions/895-halloween/288361-halloween-test/

Hallowe’en was also known as ghost night or spirit night and the souls of the dead were expected to return to the family home. Evil spirits were also thought to be active and people avoided travelling alone on this night (Museum of Country Life website)

It not surprising then that special crosses were made and placed above the door to protect the home from bad luck for the coming year.

Another very old  tradition was the carving of turnips into a figure known a Jack O Lantern. In my opinion the turnips are terrifying  when compared to the pumpkin.

According to folklore, the Jack O’Lantern is named after a blacksmith Stingy Jack who tricked the devil into paying for his drinks. Unable to enter heaven or hell when he died, the devil threw him a burning ember.He was left to wander the earth carrying it about inside a turnip – or should that be a pumpkin? (Fowler 2005)

906

Jack O Lantern on display at the Museum of Country Life Co Mayo

Irish immigrants took the tradition of Jack O’Lantern to America where pumpkins were substituted for turnips. The Jack O Lantern below was traditionally carved in (Fintown) Baile na Finne, County Donegal Gaelltacht, c. 1903 .

Jack O Lantern below was traditionally carved in (Fintown) Baile na Finne, County Donegal Gaelltacht, c. 1903 National Museum of Ireland .

This Halloween Cross is from Barr Thráú, Iorrais, Mayo and is on display at the National Museum of Ireland-Country Life.

If you can I highly recommend a visit to the Halloween exhibition at the Museum of Country Life.

908

Halloween Display at Museum of Country Life

For anyone who would like to find out more about Ireland  Halloween traditions there  is   wonderful account  provided  by  Irish Archaeology.ie also see the links below.  Duchas.ie also has lovely presentation available as a pdf of old Halloween traditions in Ireland.

duchas

Duchas.ie presentation as pdf on Halloween traditions

The RTE Archives also have a really great collection of video and audio relating   Halloween Customs and Traditions in Ireland.   I really enjoyed this audio clip where

  Folklorist  Barbara O’Flynn tells Marian Richardson about the different ways Halloween is celebrated in urban and rural areas. She says bonfires and trick or treating are customs associated with the eastern half of Ireland, but they are now spreading throughout the country. Halloween was traditionally marked in the West of Ireland by playing practical jokes, like throwing cabbage against people’s doors or switching gates on farms.Divination is still widely practised, with four plates used to foretell death, marriage, prosperity or travel. The return of the dead remains a big part of Halloween, and an example of the overlapping of Christian and pagan traditions, which is seen throughout Irish folkore ( RTE Archive)

The tweet below also has links to the RTE Halloween Archives.

Happy Halloween everyone.

Further Reading On Halloween

http://www.museum.ie/Country-Life/Featured-Topics/Halloween
http://irishfireside.com/2011/10/27/halloween-finds-its-roots-in-irish-folklore/
Fowler, J. 2005.Turnip battles with pumpkin for Hallowe’en  at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/northern_ireland/4383216.stm
Danaher, K. 1972. The Year in Ireland. irish Calender Customs. Mercier Press.
http://www.duchas.ie/download/15.10.23-halloween.pdf
http://irisharchaeology.ie/2015/10/halloween-in-irish-folklore/
http://irishfireside.com/2011/10/27/halloween-finds-its-roots-in-irish-folklore/
http://www.museum.ie/Country-Life/Featured-Topics/Halloween
Save
Save
Save